I think I know what you mean with implementing a QA process, but I will say this anyway. Even if the project is short and you test it in a different fashion than in the long term projects. You will apply some kind of process. So instead of say process or no process you need to figure out what process that you need to suite the project.
I like to break testing into different dimensions, then figure out which of these are important for you, and then design what tools you need to solve it best.
Some common and important dimensions:
- Reporting - What and to whom for what reason
- Tracability - To you need to prove what have been tested, what do you need to prove?
- Partitioning - Do you need to share the work
- Knowledge Transfer - How do you share knowledge and teach new people
- Coverage - Tools that support you to figure out what you want to have done versus what you have done
- Test Design - Tools the help you design tests
There are more, but these are ones which typically uses a documentation based approach which is what I read as your main concern.
We have roughly 3 months projects and have recently been working with this problem some tools that we use:
Testing Tours - For Partitioning and Test Design
Session Based Testing - For coverage and tracability
Pair Testing - For Test Design and Knowledge Transfer