Testing without requirements?

We’ve all been there at one point in our careers. You’re sitting there thinking about what you’re going to do because you’ve got no specifications, requirements or use cases but you’ve been asked/told/expected to test.

It can be daunting for some. For me, it was when I was very new to the world of testing and so felt like a deer in headlights thinking “What do I do?” “I can’t look idle, there has to be something, anything I can work on to provide value.”

With the benefit of hindsight that many of us now have, what would you say to someone in this situation? What can they do? Where should they start?


Look though the product documentation.
Is there a build document? If so you can test that the application has been built/configured correctly?

Are there security requirements your organisation follows? Test to see if the application meet those requirements.

Go and talk to the people involved? What can they tell you about it? Does everyone’s understanding match and does the application ddo as expected?

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  1. Most project nowadays involve sprints. A good place to start would the jira items. There should be acceptance criteria which the testers can use to start testing.
  2. In other instances like insurance platform, there should be training manuals for onboarding new hires. It may not be up to date or complete but it’s a good place to start.
  3. In the case of the public facing web app which only provide info for general public, it would be good to know from the developers what the technology was used to create the app e.g. was it angular etc? also, find out from the devs what the APIs which means to ask the devs what the functionalities are. It would help to have some web dev background to understand what’s happening under the hood. Many web apps have the following functionality: search, log in, pull data from server, put data into server. Other things to test would performance.
  4. know the difference between user experience and functionality. some feedback would enhance user experience but may not necessarily be a bug. bug would be when it’s not doing what it’s supposed to do.
  5. last but not least, exploring and providing feedback - the good, bad, the ugly. I find testing can be also just feedback about what it’s about, what’s nice, what’s great, what’s not nice, do you think it’s doing what it’s supposed to do e.t.c.

good luck


A long time ago I read an article about Guided Learning that I took to heart which is good in this situation. The tl;dr is that compare what you learn if you get “sit 4 hours with the product” vs. “Find all 5 places where your avatar shows”. The latter is the guided part and was shown to be more efficient in learning. So here is a general guide (which is never as good as a specific guide).

Testing tours to the rescue! First start with the Feature tour. Your mission is to identify what are all the features of the product. The second is the Claims tour. What does the product claim it can do, and can it? With your newly acquired knowledge you end your mission with a Data tour. Pick some important data and follow it through the product.

Now you should know the major features of the product and some of how different parts are connected.

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It might not be ideal, but it happens.

When I have to test without requirements, I usually follow this rather loose process:

  • If I don’t know the app/feature, start by exploring it. Figure out from the application what it does, if I can access a database, look at what data it saves where.
  • Go through the app/feature and document what it does. Look for anything that doesn’t make sense, obvious errors, etc. If I can’t work out from context what should happen, note what does happen.
  • After the first pass documentation/exploration/test is done, talk with the developer(s) about what should be happening - usually with questions like “When I do X, Y happens, which seems a bit odd to me. Is that what should be happening?”
  • If I don’t have a clearer idea what is expected by the second pass through the application, I start checking for things like keyboard navigation - are shortcuts defined, does the tab order make sense, etc - and layout, spelling, usability issues.

Generally speaking, if there’s no other requirements available, the application UI itself can stand in as the requirement. There’s a lot more detective work than is needed when you do have some form of requirements documentation, but there’s still a lot of information that can be gleaned from the application.


I always tell my testers in their domain teams don’t be afraid to push back and say I don’t have any requirements to test against. Otherwise it can drive bad behaviour and lead to poor quality. Quite often you can see stories that are very light on information and with no acceptance criteria.

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This reminds me of a great anecdote I have heard somewhere. Once there was a war going on, and a soldier comes rushing to the officer, “Sir, bad news, the enemy have surrounded us”. The officer looks up and say, “jolly good, now we can attack in any direction”!!

So to say, when there are no requirements, no specifications, I would rather go exploratory and try to bring everything down…


No requirements? No specs? No use cases? No problem!

What you need in this case , is to create a solid Test Plan for your future testing.

Put this strategy into a well-defined document, which consists of all the details you consider important to cover, your knowledge and relation to the project and the customer - and you have both the blueprints for future testing and an official paper to show to your management.

There are many different standards on how to create/fill the good Software Test Plan document (or you can invent your own). I myself recommend to go through this article - which both describes what should be written in the doc and also has some nice templates to use.

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Testing without requirements happens more often than people Realise… Packaged as agile at times…
I’d say ask questions… And then ask some more… The more interaction and feedback you get, the more you can refine your approach…


I guess if a project makes it to the testing stage and the testteam complains that there’re no requirements, somebody has been sleeping. In any delivery methodology or framework, there’s a moment the QA Team need to get involved and this shouldn’t happen at the time testing starts. There must have been some information used in the stages prior to testing (ie development), which may not have been document or might not carry the label of requirements (some suggestions above).I suggest the testteam gets involved earlier in the process to recognize those points. Otherwise, fall back on experience and skills.

I would ask them if they are afraid to learn, willing to learn, as there are plenty of resources available.
They would have to start understanding some basics of testing.

  • Would the explorers stop exploring if they wouldn’t have a map, some specifications of where exactly to go, what exactly to find?
  • Would doctors stop investigating and experimenting when people with strange symptoms go to them and they don’t immediately know what’s happening?
  • Would a psychologist stop analyzing someone and trying to identify and help them identify the problems and solutions and say: I don’t understand you, what you want, need…
  • Would a food critic stop criticizing a restaurant if they are not described everything about the restaurant and food?
  • Would a developer stop developing if they don’t have all specifications?

Everyone explores, investigates, analyzes, is questioning, observes, infers, models, etc… empirically. And so do testers.

Good reads:


"Are you planning to do testing without requirements? Is it possible to test software without requirements?

I can say, it’s pretty rare in QA testing services, but the situation can arise where we are expected to review without being given a functional specification document.

We will be unable to follow the standard testing practices without the testing documents.

Find below the real-time scenario for such a situation:

  • A platform upgrade is required, with slight or no changes to the functionality. In such cases, requirements documentation is mostly ignored. Because for a reference, a system already exists.

Below are some of the challenges that you might face while testing the software without requirements:

  1. Difficult to prepare test cases.
  2. Not easy to train members
  3. Unable to track testing progress for a big team

But Don’t worry! these challenges cannot prevent testing from happening.

As part of the requirement gathering phase, the focus must be on identifying what to test?

Here’s what can be done before starting your test:

1. Know your team – It’s a good practice to be aware of the developers, business analysts, product owners, project managers, graphic designers, test module leads, and all your peers involved in the testing. It is more required when we are missing documentation as it will help you to reach out to the right person at the time of need.

2. Explore Other Artefacts – Functional or Software Requirements Specifications is just one of the several documents prepared during the software development phase. The availability of design documents is equally helpful, so check out if wireframes or mockups are available. Other useful resources can be business requirements, use cases, process flows, or technical documents.

Here, the team and testers have an idea of the scope, making a list of all critical components helps in planning resources and total effort.

So now, we will discuss some techniques that testers can use in case they do not have any software requirements specification.

1. Checklist for all the functionality– A checklist of identified components will work as the testing scope document. You can utilize the same for work allocation and tracking within the team.

2. Use Experience-based testers – This is the most valuable step in this overall process. Their experience not only counts for the total experience in this field but what matters most is the domain experience. Their knowledge will help in identifying the gaps in the built system, also assist in mentoring other team members.

3. Perform Exploratory testing – This testing is the most suitable for this type of requirement. The knowledge and experience help to identify the conditions in which the system may not work as expected and more stress is given on those areas of testing.

So, finally, we got the conclusion that even though having no documents creates a challenge, it can also occasionally work as an advantage.

This is where asking questions comes into play, assuming you have someone willing to answer them like a Product Owner, Architect or lead Developer.

Are there similar products in the market you have used or have access to as a point of reference? Use that for inspiration!

How much experience do you have with the product or feature? If your knowledge is limited, do some exploring. Make some charters based on what you do know and explore in time boxes. Your goal is to identify questions and things you want experiment with further.

Wish you had more written down to start you off? Remember to take notes and make them sharable/findable. You might be the next person to test this next feature, you will thank past you.

This does happens when there’s just the software lying with you and there’s no other documentation provided - mostly because the rest of team feels that the product is self-explanatory and it’s beyond them to document how it works or how it is supposed to work, or they simply don’t have the time to jot it down. Or it could be just cultural that they don’t have a habit of doing it.

I would set up time to talk to the stakeholders - the Product Manager, the Program Manager, and the development team, and interview them. As the discussion gets deeper and deeper, rapport builds up, and few details get shared. Eventually, we would agree to talk further in another meeting, etc., and whenever I get a chance, I would just casually ask them to jot some notes on how the product is supposed to behave.

Eventually, I get more details jotted down and I’ll be on my way.